How Far Can We Go? Limits of Humanity.

How Far Can We Go? Limits of Humanity.


Is there a border we will never cross? Are there places we will never reach,
no matter how hard we try? Turns out there are. Even with science fiction technology,
we are trapped in our pocket of the Universe. How can that be?
And, how far can we go? We live in a quiet arm of the Milky Way;
A spiral galaxy of average size, – about 100,000 light years across – consisting of billions of stars, gas clouds,
dark matter, black holes, neutron stars, and planets, with a supermassive
black hole in the galactic centre.>From afar, our galaxy seems dense, but
in reality, it consists, mostly, of empty space. With our current technology, sending a human
to the closest star, would take thousands of years. So, our galaxy is pretty big. The Milky Way is not alone, though. Along with the Andromeda galaxy,
and more than fifty dwarf galaxies, it’s a part of “The Local Group”; a region of space about ten million light years
in diameter. It is one of the hundreds of galaxy groups in
the “Laniakea Supercluster”, which, itself is only one of millions
of superclusters, that make up the observable universe. Now, let’s assume, for a moment, that
we have a glorious future; humanity becomes a type three civilisation, does not get wiped out by aliens, and develops interstellar travel based on
our current understanding of physics. In this best case scenario,
how far could we possibly go? Well; the local group. It’s the biggest structure that humanity
will ever be a part of. While it’s certainly huge, the local group
accounts for only 0.00000000001 % of the observable universe. Let this number sink in for a moment. We are limited to a hundred billionth of
a percent of the observable universe. The simple fact that there is actually
a limit for us, and that there is so much universe that we will never
be able to touch, is kind of frightening. Why can’t we go further? Well, it all has to do with
the nature of nothing. Nothing, or empty space, isn’t empty
but has energy intrinsic to itself; so-called “quantum fluctuations”. On the smaller scale, there is
constant action, particles and antiparticles appearing and annihilating themselves. You can imagine this quantum vacuum as
a bubbling part: with denser, and less dense regions. Now, let’s go back 13.8 billion years
when the fabric of space consisted of nothing at all. Right after the big bang, in an event known
as cosmic inflation, the observable universe expanded from the size of a marble to
trillions of kilometres, in fractions of a second. This sudden stretching of the universe was
so fast and extreme, that all those quantum fluctuations were
stretched as well, and subatomic distances became
galactic distances, with dense and less dense regions. After inflation, gravity began to pull
everything back together. At the largest scale, the expansion was
too quick and powerful to overcome but in smaller scales,
gravity emerged victorious. So, over time, the denser regions,
or pockets, of the universe, grew into groups of galaxies, like the one
we live in today. Only stuff inside our pocket – The Local Group –
is bound to us gravitationally. But wait, what is the problem then? Why can’t we travel from our pocket,
to the next one? Here, dark energy makes everything complicated. About six billion years ago,
dark energy took over. It’s basically an invisible force or effect,
that causes, and speeds up the expansion of the universe. We don’t know why, or what dark energy is,
but we can observe its effect clearly. In the early universe, there were larger,
cold spots around the local group, that grew into clusters with thousands
of galaxies. We are surrounded by a lot of stuff,
but none of those structures and galaxies outside of the local group are gravitationally
bound to us. So the more the universe expands,
the larger the distance between us and other gravitational pockets becomes. Over time, dark energy will push the rest
of the universe away from us, causing all the other clusters, galaxies, and
groups to eventually become unreachable. The next galaxy group is already millions
of light years away, but all of them are moving away from us,
at speeds we can’t, ever, hope to match. We could leave the local group, and then
fly through intergalactic space, into the darkness, but we would never
arrive anywhere. While we will become more and more stranded,
the local group will become more tightly bound, and merge together to form one giant elliptical galaxy,
with the unoriginal name “Milkdromeda” in a few billion years. But it becomes even more depressing: at some point, the galaxies outside
the local group, will be so far away, that they will be too faint to detect, and the few
photons that do make it to us, will be shifted to such long wavelengths,
that they will be undetectable. Once this happens, no information outside
of the local group will be able to reach us. The universe will recede from view. It will appear to be dark and empty
in all directions, forever. A being born in the far future in
Milkdromeda, will think there is nothing but its own
galaxy in the entire universe. When they look far into empty space, they
will only see more emptiness and darkness; they won’t be able to see the
cosmic background radiation, and they won’t be able to learn about
the Big Bang. They will have no way of knowing
what we know today; the nature of the expanding universe,
where it began, and how it will end. They will think the universe is static and eternal. Milkdromeda will be an island in the darkness,
slowly getting darker and darker. But still, with its trillions of stars,
the local group is certainly large enough for humanity. After all, we still haven’t figured out
how to leave our solar system, and we have billions of years
to explore our galaxy. We have the incredible luck to exist at
the perfect moment in time to see, not only our future but also our
most distant past. As isolated and remote as the local group is,
we can perceive the entire universe, grand and spectacular as it is right now. This video was sponsored by SquareSpace.com/nutshell Do you feel isolated in a humongous universe? Why not set up a website or blog
and share your thoughts with other humanoids around you? Squarespace lets you do that
with easy-to-understand tools very quickly and without any knowledge of web design. You can also use the code “NUTSHELL” to save
10 % and support Kurzgesagt in making more videoes about our place
in the universe. Thanks so much for the help with the video
to Ethan Siegel. Follow his astronomy blog here. You can support us directly at Patreon
or get Kurzgesagt merch here. It really helps. It is awesome that you watched this far,
so we have made a playlist for you about more universe stuff. Subtitles made by Sebastian Winkelmann Subtitles by the Amara.org community

100 thoughts on “How Far Can We Go? Limits of Humanity.

  1. It actually starts to depress everyone and when hypothetical they can defrost me from cryonics just knowing centuries ago i've seen all those stars and just seeing all the darkness pfff with that knowledge it's just going to depress me

  2. Welp. Better get on building that warp drive. It'd be (probably) the only way to leave the local group. This video was one of the more depressing ones tbh. Also, if the Big Crutch theory is correct, one day Milkdromeda would be able to see the universe again.

  3. I just remembered how non influential I will be in 10000000 years I will be ancient history if I do something big and the college kids at school will probably do a social studies project on me just for good grades in the very distant future

  4. Yes!!! Thank you!!! "The question, 'What are the limits to/of humanity?', overlooks the most basic and fundamental issue, that of looking "out there" into Space/The Universe as opposed to looking first and foremost within the Heart and the limits therein."

  5. (KJV)(Proverbs 27:1) Boast not thyself of to morrow; for thou knowest not what a day may bring forth.
    (KJV)(James 4:14) Whereas ye know not what shall be on the morrow. For what is your life?
    It is even a vapour, that appeareth for a little time, and then vanisheth away.
    (KJV)(Hebrews 9:27) And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment:

  6. im sure a long time ago we thought we couldn't travel past the ocean. im sure we even thought there was nothing past it. then we thought we couldn't leave the planet. now we think we can't leave this universe. Hmmmm something is not right here.

  7. If someone doesn’t believe in other life out there show them this video, it is surely impossible that we are alone in the universe

  8. Earth is a rotten orange and we are the germs who recycle it. See our big cities from above and you will find they follow almost the same patterns of an initial rotten spoiled area over an orange surface. If you don't believe it, imagine how earth will be with a trillion people living here.

    So, every living being has only one duty of spread life everywhere.

  9. Can you imagine that there’s people who believe that the earth is flat like just imagine how dumb someone can be

  10. people/lifeform tens of bilions years ago:"They" would think universe is everything and never and never able to see what we've observed

  11. Depressing that our galaxy is nothing but a pin drop of a cluster that's also a pin drop of a local group that is also 0.0000000001 percent of the universe

  12. Funny how they don't know why how or what dark energy is but yet they say they understand how it works. Beware phrases like "scientists say, scientists believe, it is theorized that, scientists speculate", it's all a lie to cover their ignorance.

  13. Humans are pioneers we always find a way, it’ll be very rare for humans to last past the nuclear age or any other universal event. But humans always find a way. One day we will explore the stars, one day it will be like the movies where we can visit other galaxies. I believe there’s a faster way to travel through space. Whether it’s teleportation, traveling at the speed of dark matter, or wormholes. Unfortunately we’ll all be long gone before something like this is ever achieved. Think of it this way. Try explaining to the first humans on earth what a computer is or a phone.

  14. Well regardless of the unstoppable march of time and our fate as a species being confined to our local group, I’m really not that bummed out about not exploring the entire universe, I think our local group is more than apt to keep our attention for however long we survive I doubt we’ll ever even fully explore a fraction of our galaxy in-depth. So I wouldn’t worry about exploring something incomprehensibly larger like the universe.

    I’m more excited to see if humans can develop outside of earth in the coming centuries it really would be a big achievement for mankind, assuming we don’t kill one-another over land, resources, or ideal differences like we’ve usually done for… Well, a long time.

  15. There is no limitation to the speed at which we can travel–all it takes is a lot of energy. If we were to combine the energy of only about a dozen stars(if only it were that easy), we could send a ship to another galaxy cluster. The only limitation at that point is exactly how much energy in the galaxy we can safely convert and spend. Also keep in mind how insanely fast we're currently moving through space as well as gravitational time dilation, for all we know, upon leaving our local galaxy cluster, everything in the universe could vanish in an instant because time is relative and heavily altered by gravity–no huge impact on your by gravity would drastically increase the speed at which time moves for you to amounts that we literally can't measure without sending someone using dozens of stars to their possible doom to… See what happens.

  16. Well we're just going to have to invent teleportation. But we're probably will be to busy exploring other demensions.

  17. Meanwhile in Kurzgesagt headquarters:
    Manager: "Okay guys lets hear some fresh ideas for the next video.."
    Employee 1: "What about the end of humanity?"
    Employee 2: "What about some depression?"
    Employee 3: "What about birds?"
    Manager: "Yes"

  18. I like to think that we have no limits in our improvements, but us. If there’s enough motivation, we can get ahead of our imagination.

  19. Every circumstance that you have faced, and every decision that you have made in your life, has led you to read this comment

  20. Good tutorial. Short & cocise. May i ask though how scientist arrive at their 46bil light years radius of the observable universe?

  21. Hear me out, what if the universe as we know it is just one of many. Lets say the universe before the Big Bang was the size of a marble lets call them God cells. These God cells contain every possible particle possible within them(are every particle at once in a semi stable state.) If we are a result of two of them colliding at speeds we can never imagine. This collision forced the particles to choose a state ,getting one step closer to becoming truly stable thus creating all the energy we know today in the process known as the Big Bang. Others God are flying thru leaving a ghost of them selfs (Dark matter)and we no longer can interact since we are now more stable. God Cells may be at a perfectly balanced tipping point until two collide; all this extra energy would be enough to force the atoms/particles into everything we possibly know is in existence. If two God Cells were too collide again it would trigger another Big Bang, it may happen all the time, with the speed and rate that they're going we may be to far to ever be affected…. unless one happens near us…. . .

  22. Why are you assuming that even with SF technology we cannot leave the local group? Dark energy effects manifests at billion of light-years assuming a value between 45-90 km/s/Mpc. SF means breaking the laws of physics by creating wormholes or something similar. Are you telling that SF technology cannot reach M101, M51 galaxies located at 20 Mly? The expansion of space should be effective over billion ly not in the 100 Mly interval!

  23. This video, despite science fiction references, assumes we will never find a way around the light speed limit. In Stargate, a ship with hyperdrive could make it outside the local group in a few days, more than a billion times light speed. Travel through wormholes is even faster. We went from airplanes being only fantasy to spaceflight in less than a century, and technological advancement is accelerating. Who knows what we could accomplish in the next centuries if we survive?

    Dark matter and dark energy are theoretical concepts proposed to explain inconsistencies in our limited understanding of the universe. It is not proof that everything will grow vastly apart, all stars will die and even matter will disintegrate. About a century ago, scientists thought the sun was a giant burning ball powered by chemical energy. Cosmologists could be similarly mistaken, now.

  24. If only dreamt by one man, it has, it is, and it will be again. That pretty well covers it all. Draugr Hessler 2019

  25. There are two moods I have when watching these videos A: an existential crisis! or B: space is so cool!

  26. can i say "space = big quantumn field"? the field that make big bang theory possible, then virtual particle appear and make material particle like today, the question is why i can't find out "how "space or big quantumn field" created? what factor's can make space/big quantumn field? give me link/journal/pdf/ebook that can answer this question, Thank You, i am so sorry if my english was bad

  27. This sounds like an epic fantasy.
    'There was once a time when the galaxies shared light between them,
    But a day came when Dark Energy tore them apart.
    In the destruction that followed, two star crossed lovers, Milky Way and Andromeda, gave birth to a single child, Milkdromeda.
    That galaxy only knew stories about the rest of the universe, as Dark Energy divided them forever.
    But in that pocket of light, life grew.'

  28. How do we know that the rate of expansion of our universe is preventing us from seeing other universes created by other big bangs?

  29. But there's no way of knowing what sort of futuristic technology will exist in the far future so for all we know, it could very well be possible at some point to travel to other superclusters of galaxies eventually plus at least a few super advanced alien races may already have that technology.

    Of course, we'll all have long since turned to dust and bones by then and probably Humanity as we know it will be long gone by then but perhaps our distant descendants will get access to the tech at some point.

  30. They fail to mention that most of this is actually theoretical, we have limited information. If you were to take a hard into some of these things, and what process scientists have taken to reach certain conclusion you would cringe.

  31. What if it has been happening for billions or trillions of years and what we see now its just a part of an already virtually unreachable and un observable universe

  32. The idea of a wormhole negates the entire idea of a limit of human expansion. If we figure out how to control wormholes we can travel to different galaxies faster than the speed of light.

  33. “Even with science fiction technology, we are tapped in our pocket of the universe.”
    TARDIS: Am I joke to you…?

  34. so if a being born in the far future will never know about the big bang, who's to say that we have not already passed the point where we will never find out what happened before the big bang, and therefore just scientifically concluded the big bang was the first and only thing that happened in our universe

  35. Humanity has no limits if we try hard enough we could do almost anything Galactic Conquest just a hop and a skip away if everyone got along it might make it a whole lot faster though

  36. I feel like we dont have to be scared of aliens if they exist and whether they are going to invade as or not. It seems to be that we are going to be the aliens with the knowledge to overcome other nonhuman civilizations

  37. What if we use the wormhole concept here….?

    I mean to reach other far places……..
    Then, I think it would be much easier…….

  38. i always think about how would we know if we didn’t enter a whole new universe or dimension by going straight as far as possible, then i start to think of all the microscopic bacteria in our own world… what if we, the stars and planets were something else’s microscopic organisms?

  39. I have a question, what if the universe stops expanding one day. What if Gravity becomes dominant over dark energy? Gravity will start pulling things together, then I think all these boundaries are erased. Ofcourse that also means that the universe is dying …

  40. Actually we do not "see the universe as it is", but the light we perceive was emmited hundreds, thousands, or millions of years ago and it just arrived from very distant parts of the universe.

  41. Almost always I can rely on this channel to show all aspects of concepts. In this case, they didn't.

    We already known faster than light travel is theoretically possible by bending space-time.

    Einstein theorized wormholes which can also possibly allow us to transcend the local group.

    And lastly, this video relies heavily on the assumption that our current understanding of physics is all true. The number of times we've flip-flopped between thinking the universe was expanding vs contacting is astounding – we currently know less than the percentage of the universe that this video said humanity can explore lol.

    Had to dislike.

  42. (KJV)(Hebrews 9:27) And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment

    (KJV)(Revelation 21:8) But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers,
    and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death.
    (KJV)(Mark 9:44) Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched'

  43. (KJV)(Psalms 14:1) To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David. The fool hath said in his heart, There

    is no God. They are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none that doeth good.
    (KJV)(Job 4:17) Shall mortal man be more just than God? shall a man be more pure than his maker?
    (KJV)(Romans 6:23) For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord'

  44. The question is what about have we missed already we could have missed events in the universe that would describe how it was formed by maybe less than 1 million years

  45. Hey, hey, hey, there are wormholes, so we can visit any place in the universe! We just need to discover negative mass.
    1) Master negative mass technologies
    2) Open wormhole
    3) Pass through without annihilating yourself
    4) …
    5) Profit!

  46. Man….that's why I fucken hate astrology and the science of the universe…..
    The only ever true answer is so fucken depressing. I know I won't even experience the agonizing expansion or shrinking of the universe, the explosion of the sun ir even an alien invasion….but god damn….this is fucken sad thinking my descendants will have to deal with it.

  47. Who is Creator of an neutron proton of Nucleus and Atoms to millions km large ,Trillions of trillions Galaxies.
    Who is Designed it?
    REALLY THIS IS NOT AUTOMATICALLY.

  48. The universe expands at the speed of light. If we can travel faster than the speed of light, then we can catch up to what is moving away from us

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